What is Laparoscopic Surgery?
Laparoscopy, also known as diagnostic laparoscopy, is a surgical diagnostic procedure used to examine the organs inside the abdomen. It is a low-risk, minimally invasive procedure that involves small decisions only. It is performed by a laparoscope. It is a very common procedure now as major procedures like hysterectomy and myomectomy are also being performed through laparoscopy. As per our surgical audit of 150 consecutive operations, only three were performed as open procedures. It is widely being adopted by various surgeons across the world because of good results.
When to be performed?
Laparoscopy is performed in case of the following symptoms or conditions:
- Endometriosis (diagnosis and treatment)
- Ovarian cysts (cystectomy is often performed laparoscopically)
- Fibroids (myomectomy)
- Ectopic pregnancy (diagnosis and treatment)
- Hysterectomy (may be performed for heavy periods, fibroids or endometrial cancer)
- Diagnosis and treatment of pelvic pain
How is it performed?
During laparoscopy, the surgeon makes a small cut (incision) of around 1-1.5cm (0.4-0.6 inches), usually near the belly button. A tube is inserted through the incision, and carbon dioxide gas is pumped through the tube to inflate the stomach (abdomen). A laparoscope is then inserted through this tube. The laparoscope relays images to a television monitor in the operating theatre, giving the surgeon a clear view of the whole area. After the procedure, the carbon dioxide is let out of your abdomen, the incisions are closed using stitches or clips and a dressing is applied.
Why is it better?
- HPV & subtyping test
- In this technique, smaller incisions are made that is less painful and also shortens the recovery time resulting in less post-operative scarring
- It is less painful and hence reduces the requirement of pain medication
- It reduces exposure of internal organs to possible external contaminants and also reduces the risk of infections.
- It gives better visualisation and access to the surgeon
- YThe patient has an early return to work and normal life
- It reduces risk of thrombo-embolism (blood clot in legs or lungs)
What are the risks involved?
- Haematoma (collection of blood or bruising)
- Injury to intra-abdominal structures
- Risk of conversion to laparotomy (open operation).